One must keep in mind that the patient suffering of halitosis is a person looking for help, often anxious and suspicious of any treatment, due to bad experiences using traditional approaches. The available methods can be divided into a mechanical reduction of microorganisms, chemical reduction of microorganisms, usage of masking products, and chemical neutralization of VSC.
Professional oral health care examination must be provided to all the patients irrespective of the type of halitosis. The authors have developed a management strategy based on the types of halitosis in Figure 3. Management strategy for a patient with halitosis depending on the type and etiology Modified from porter and scully, [ 10 ]. Mechanical removal of biofilm and microorganisms is the first step in the control of halitosis. Interdental cleaning is also necessary to control plaque, and oral microorganisms as failure to floss lead to a significantly high incidence of malodor.
In a recent systematic review, no evidence of diet modification, use of a sugar-free chewing gum, tongue cleaning by brushing, scraping the tongue or the use of zinc-containing toothpaste resulted in clinically significant results for the management for intraoral halitosis. Antibacterial mouth rinsing agents include chlorhexidine CHX , cetylpyridinium chloride CPC and triclosan, which act on halitosis-producing bacteria.
Halitosis: Current concepts on etiology, diagnosis and management
CHX is considered as the gold standard mouth rinse for halitosis treatment. Usage of Listerine containing essential oils resulted in significant reduction in halitosis-producing bacteria in healthy subjects. The usage of masking agents like rinsing products, sprays, toothpaste containing fluorides, mint tablets or chewing gum only have a short-term masking effect.
Eli et al.
Bad Breath Home Remedies, Symptoms & Halitosis Prevention
When treating patients with oral malodor, clinicians should relate not only to physiological odor and associated parameters but also to the nature of the subjective complaint. In halitosis management, a well-established understanding between a patient and a primary healthcare clinician can bring a successful result.
A primary healthcare clinician must exhibit attitudes of acceptance, sympathy, support, and reassurance to reduce the patient's anxiety. Professionals can improve patient quality of life as a whole, improving their social interactions and relationships. A sustained encouragement and reassurance need to be given by the patient's primary healthcare clinician, family, and friends.
Due to the multifactorial complexity of halitosis, patients should be treated individually, rather than be categorized. Halitosis is an extremely unappealing characteristic of sociocultural interactions and may have long-term detrimental aftereffects on psychosocial relationships. With proper diagnosis, identification of the etiology, and timely referrals when needed, steps can be taken to create a successful individualized therapeutic approach for each patient seeking assistance.
This may be because the snippet appears in a figure legend, contains special characters or spans different sections of the article. Eur J Dent. PMID: Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence: Dr. Gaurav Sharma E-mail: moc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Halitosis or oral malodor is an offensive odor originating from the oral cavity, leading to anxiety and psychosocial embarrassment.
Keywords: Diagnosis, etiology, halitosis, management.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Table 2 A list of systemic diseases with characteristic halitosis. Figure 2. Figure 3.
Financial support and sponsorship Nil. Conflicts of interest There are no conflicts of interest. Scully C. BMJ Clin Evid Bollen CM, Beikler T. Halitosis: The multidisciplinary approach. Int J Oral Sci. Self-reported halitosis and gastro-esophageal reflux disease in the general population. J Gen Intern Med. Prevalence of halitosis in the population of the city of Bern, Switzerland: A study comparing self-reported and clinical data. Eur J Oral Sci. Oral malodor-related parameters in the Chinese general population.
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Porter SR, Scully C. Oral malodour halitosis BMJ. Clinical efficacy of a new tooth and tongue gel applied with a tongue cleaner in reducing oral halitosis. Quintessence Int. Multidisciplinary breath-odour clinic. Aylikci BU, Colak H. Halitosis: From diagnosis to management. J Nat Sci Biol Med. Chronic halitosis from tonsilloliths: A common etiology.
J La State Med Soc. Carranza's Clinical Periodontology. Missouri: Saunders and Elsevier Inc. Halitosis: An overview of epidemiology, etiology and clinical management.
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